Aug 11, 2011, 07:30 PM
Reading comprehension for TOEFL iBT
Pre reading: Read the first and last sentences of each paragraph. Then, answer the questions.
1. What’s the main idea of the reading?
2. What are two or three details that support the main idea?
1. Code switching is when people switching, or change, from one language to another while speaking. They might begin a conversation in one language and then, later in the conversation, switch to another. They might begin a sentence in one language but end it in another. Or they might insert a word or phrase from another language. When and why people code switch depends on the speakers and the situation.
2. One reason people code switch is to show social closeness. Imagine that two women meet at a party in New York. Gabriela is Brazilian, and Pamela is British. In their conversation, Pamela asks:
Pamela: Where are you from?
Pamela: Really? Uma cidade muito bonita [A beautiful city]. I was there last year.
Gabriela: Oh, do you speak Portuguese?
Pamela: Um pouco [only a little]….
Here, Pamela uses a little Portuguese in order to sho closeness or friendliness to Gabriela.
3. On the other hand, people also code switch to create social distance. Sometimes this happens in immigrant homes in the United States where the children can speak English, but the parents understand only the language of their native country. Children can code switch to keep their parents from understanding everything they say. Likewise, parents may code switch when they share a language that their children do not understand.
4. One final reason that people code switch is lack of knowledge about a language or lack of attention of one’s language. Imagine a teenage girl living Latino community in Los Angeles. Talking with her friends, she says, “Espérate [Wait a minute]. What did you just say???” It is possible that the teenager was not trying to show social closeness or distance. Perhaps she didn’t know how to express the second idea in Spanish. Most likely, she may simply have switched to English without paying much attention to which language she was using.
5. Code switch occurs between people who share more than one common language; however, it can also occur between people who share a language and a dialect at home and then switch to another dialect at school or work. One example is teenagers use slang when talking to their friends. For instance, a teen might say to his friend, “Gotta bounce. Me ‘n’ the crew’re goin’ shoppin’ for some mad that phat gear.” Gotta bounce means “I have to leave”, the crew means “my friends”, and mad phat gear means “nice clothes”. Therefore, the teen is saying, “I’m going shopping with my friends”, but only speakers of both English and this teen dialect can understand. Tens use their dialect because it helps them to show that they fit in with their friends. It also shows that they are separate from their parents.
6. Regardless of the situation, there are two important rules for code switch. First, the speakers have to know both languages or dialects at least well enough to follow the changes. More importantly, the switches have to be grammatical. For example, the sentence “Tengo que do my homework” follows the subject + verb + object grammar rules in both Spanish and English.
7. One day you may be riding on a train, listening to the people next to you having a conversation. If you can understand only 50 percent of what they are saying, perhaps they are code switching to show each other closeness or perhaps to stop you from listening in on their conversation!
Post-reading: Multiple-choice questions
1. What is this passage mainly about?
A. Showing closeness between speakers
B. Hiding your idea from other people
C. Learning a new or foreign language
D. Switching between languages
2. Why does the author use the example of Pamela speaking Portuguese?
A. To show code switching to create closeness between speakers
B. To show code switching to create social distance
C. To show code switching between dialect of a language
D. To show code switching by an immigrant o the U.S.
3. The word dialect can best be defined as
A. a language used by teens.
B. a variation of a language.
C. a sentence in two languages.
D. A foreign language.
4. In paragraph 5, why does the author, why does the author use the sentence, “Code switching occurs between people who share more than one common language; however, it can also occur between people who share a language and a dialect, or variation, of the language.”?
A. To make s transition
B. To summarize an idea
C. To give an example
D. To start a conclusion
5. According to the passage, what is the function of slang among some teenagers?
A. To share a common language with their parents
B. To create social distance from one another
C. To express closeness with one another
D. To show closeness with their parents
6. What rules does a speaker have to follow when code switching? Choose TWO answers.
A. Show closeness to the other speaker
B. Speak directly to the other person
C. Use languages both speakers know
D. Follow the grammar of the two languages
E. Complete a sentence before code switching
7. In paragraph 6, the phrase Regardless of the situation is closest in meaning to
A. in all cases.
B. in some conversations.
C. in some locations.
D. In all languages.
8. What can the reader infer from paragraph 5 and 6?
A. Young people code switch a lot.
B. Americans code switch a lot.
C. Multilingual people code
D. Parents code switch a lot.
9. What adjective best describes the author’s tone in paragraph 7?
10. Look at the four symbols (A), (B), (C), (D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit? Circle the letter that shows the point where you would insert this sentence.
In this case they may code switch to English or a teen dialect of English.
On the other hand, people also code switch to create social distance. (A) Sometimes this happens in immigrant homes in the United Sates where the children can speak English, but the parents understand the language of their native country. (B) Children can code switch to keep their parents from understanding everything they say. (C) Likewise, parents may code switch when they share a language that their children do not understand. (D)
11. Which of the following express the essential information in this sentence from the passage?
Code switching occurs between people who share more than one common language; however, it can also occur between people who share language and dialect, or variation, of that language.
A. People can code switch between French and Spanish, but they cannot use a dialect, such as slang.
B. Code switching can be done in two ways: either between two languages or between a language and a variation of it.
C. Speakers who code switch are creating a dialect, or variation, of two different languages or types of language.
D. Code switching happens when two languages or dialects of language are used by a single speaker.
12. Read the first sentence of a summary of a passage. Then complete the summery by circling the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas of the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
There a several different reasons people code switch.
A. A person might code switch due to lack of attention to or lack of knowledge about a language.
B. People code switch to create distance between themselves and people who do know both languages.
C. Some speakers code switch before they finish a single sentence.
D. Speakers may code switch to show attention or closeness to another speaker.
E. Code switch can involve inserting word from another language into a sentence.
F. The grammar rules of both languages can be changed when code switching.
Hello ESE members,
The above exercise is typed out for you from the book named “Building skills for the TOEFL iBT – Intermediate by John Beaumont” in cooperation with ETS and used under license by Pearson Longman.
For the sake of improving reading comprehension skill, this book is readable. It contain well-written passages and questions to test you understanding. You should read the questions (Pre-reading questions and post-reading questions) before start to read the passages and. It will help you determine what outcomes you are expected to get. In a long term, it would assist you in developing your good reading habits.
For readers you’re going to take the TOFEL iBT, it’s essential for you to practice skill in the examination format. You may try to complete all the questions I’ve posted above to master your reading skill.
After completing the questions, you may post them in this threat to know your result. If you find any difficulty, feel free to seek help from me.
Enjoy your reading
Last edited by o0o ga chip 93 o0o; Aug 28, 2011 at 11:23 PM.
The Following User Says Thank You to o0o ga chip 93 o0o For This Useful Post: