Nouns A noun is a the name of a person, place, thing, quality, concept or action

PersonsPlacesThingsQualitiesConceptsActions
child
typist
Mr. Harris
Martha

lobby
courtroom
Chicago
college

desk
phone
computer
book

dependability
honesty
loyalty
sincerity

beauty
truth
knowledge
happiness

walking/to walk
typing/to type
writing/to write
thinking/to think

The first letters of some nouns are capitalized to show a specific name or title (Alan). These are called proper nouns. Other nouns that are not specific do not use a capital letter (man). These are called common nouns. Nouns that have a singular and plural form are called count nouns. Nouns that only have a singular form are called non-count nouns.
Non-count nouns never add -s.

often count nouns { person
place
thing


often non-count nouns { quality
concept
action
Common NounProper Noun
CountNon-CountCount
Singular
girl
country
car --------
--------
--------
Plural
girls
countries
cars --------
--------
--------

--------
--------
homework honesty
beauty
typing
Singular
Maria
America
Ford --------
--------
--------
Plural
Marias
Americas
Fords --------
--------
--------
Nouns function in many ways:

Noun Functions
subject:
direct object:
complements:
object of the prep:
indirect object:
possession:

The car runs well.
I bought a book.
Mary was president.
He walked to the store.
Sam mailed Joan a letter.
The woman's daughter left early.


Verbs
A verb is a word that tells what the subject of the sentence does, says, thinks, or feels. Sometimes the verb shows movement (jump) or sometimes it shows how a thing is or that it exists (is). The verb also shows time which is called tense. The form of the verb or its tense can tell when events take place.
For example, the verb kiss (*note: kiss is also a count noun):

Present Simple
kiss/kisses
Past Simple
kissed
Future Simple
will kiss
Present Perfect
has/have kissed
Past Perfect
had kissed
Future Perfect
will have kissed
Present Continuous (Progressive)
is/am/are kissing
Past Continuous (Progressive)
was kissing
Future Continuous (Progressive)
will be kissing
Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
has/have been kissing
Past Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
had been kissing
Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
will have been kissing

Adverbs Adverbs modify or describe verbs (run fast), adjectives (often sad), or other adverbs (too often). Adverbs often, but not always, end in -ly. A test for deciding if a word is an adverb is to think about the word's function. Adverbs tend to tell where, when, or how.
For example: very pretty, most unhappy, never angry, come soon
Adverbs often answer three questions:


THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS
Verb Manner Place Frequency Time Purpose
Beth swims enthusiastically in the pool every morning before dawn to keep in shape.
Dad walks impatiently into town every afternoon before supper to get a newspaper.
Tashonda naps
in her room every morning before lunch.

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.
The Royal Order of Adverbs was created by Dr. Charles Darling, Professor of English, Capital Community College.
Source: Capital Community College Guide to Grammar & Writing: Adverbs. Reprinted with permission 25 February 2003.
Adjectives
Adjectives are words that describe a noun. Ugly, funny, big, round, and loose are all examples of adjectives. Some less obvious examples are: that dog, her bone, enough food, every room. Adjectives can also describe how much or how many: fewer friends, less food, more people.

colorsqualitysizeemotionsnumbersdemonstrative
blue
red
green
orange
fuschia
yellow
honest
loyal
sincere
efficient
confident
rude
big
small
tiny
large
miniscule
huge
sad
angry
happy
nervous
one
two
three
first
second
third
this (close)
that (far)
these (close)
those (far)
action verbs of feeling
(can be used as adj.)
articlespossessive
(+ noun)
interested/interesting
satisfied/satisfying
bored/boring
excited/exciting
*
a
an
the
my (tradition)
your (tradition)
his (tradition)
her (tradition)
its (tradition)
our (traditions)
your (traditions)
their (traditions)
Verb+ED becomes an adjective when it is used to describe a person or animal that experiences an emotion We will call this adjective the Experiencer adjective.
One good way to remember to use ED to describe the Experiencer is to remember that both words start with E. The Experiencer is described with ED.
Verb+ING becomes an adjective when it is used to describe the things that cause an emotion. We will call this the Instigator (Causing) adjective.
One good way to remember to use ING to describe the Instigator (or Causing) adjective is to remember that both words start with I. The Instigator is described with ING.

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Determiner Observation Physical Description Origin Material Qualifier Noun

Size Shape Age Color
a beautiful

old
Italian
touring car
an expensive

antique

silver
mirror
four gorgeous
long-
stemmed

red
silk
roses
her

short
black


hair
our
big
old
English

sheepdog
those

square


wooden hat boxes
that dilapidated little




hunting cabin
several
enormous
young
American
basketball players
some delicious



Thai

food
The Royal Order of Adjectives was created by Dr. Charles Darling, Professor of English, Capital Community College.
Source: Capital Community College Guide to Grammar & Writing: Adjectives. Reprinted with permission 25 February 2003.
Pronouns
Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun.
Example: Carol is nice. She is also pretty.


Subject Object
(of verb or preposition)
Possessive Reflexive
Singular I
you
he
she
it
me
you
him
her
it
mine
yours
his
hers
-----
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
Plural we
you
they
us
you
them
ours
yours
theirs
ourselves
yourselves
themselves
Conjunctions
A conjunction is a word that connects phrases, words, or clauses. Conjunctions are often used as transitions.
There are two kinds of conjunctions:

COORDINATING: connects words, phrases, or clauses
and, but, or, for
Gallaudet teachers communicate in American Sign Language and English.
either... or; neither... nor; both... and; not only... but also
Most students use either ASL or English.
hence, therefore, moreover, however, besides, consequently
I like to read; however, I hate to write.
SUBORDINATING: introduces subordinate clauses and connects them with the main clause
who, which, that
People who live in glass houses don't like children to play catch in front of their houses.
although, because, since, though, if, as if
Although I work hard, I'm still broke.

Prepositions Prepositions are words that express the relation of a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. Prepositions show the relationships among things, people, and places.

Prepositions of
Direction
(to & from)
Place
(where)
Time
(when)
to the store
from the library
toward the floor
in the hall
on the ceiling
over the doorway
in a minute
on July 4
at lunch time

Interjections An interjection is an exclamatory word (or words) that shows strong or sudden feeling and has no grammatical function in the construction of a sentence.

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