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  1. #1
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    Default Lesson 94 - Diphthongs, Modified Vowels and Vowel Digraphs



    A diphthong is two vowel sounds in one syllable. The diphthong ow and ou make the ow sound as in cow.
    1. Words with diphthongs ow and ou
    Sample sentence:
    I found my flowers dead and brown when I came back to town.
    blouse
    cow
    dowel
    out
    crown
    ouch
    house
    bow
    towel
    pout
    clown
    pouch
    mouse
    how
    vowel
    about
    frown
    couch
    found
    now
    growl
    scout
    down
    tower
    hound
    wow
    our
    shout
    gown
    power
    pound
    plow
    hour
    snout
    town
    flower
    round
    owl
    flour
    sprout
    mouth
    shower
    sound
    fowl
    loud
    route
    south
    mountain
    ground
    howl
    proud
    brown
    count
    thousand
    When the consonant r after the vowel a, it changes the sound of the vowel as in ark.
    2. Modified vowels: är words
    Sample sentence:You can see my apartment from the Top of the Rock when there's no fog.
    bar
    star
    hark
    cart
    farmer
    barber
    car
    bard
    lark
    dart
    harm
    garden
    far
    card
    mark
    mart
    alarm
    harbor
    gar
    guard
    park
    part
    charm
    harness
    jar
    hard
    shark
    tart
    arch
    harvest
    mar
    yard
    spark
    chart
    march
    market
    par
    ark
    barn
    start
    carp
    pardon
    tar
    bark
    yarn
    arm
    harp
    regard
    spar
    dark
    art
    farm
    sharp
    sparkle
    A diphthong is two vowels sounds in one syllable. The diphthongs oi and oy make the oi sound as in oil.
    3. Words with diphthongs oi and oy
    Sample sentence: The boy is annoying, but a loyal employee.
    oil
    soil
    point
    moist
    toy
    enjoy
    boil
    broil
    voice
    noise
    coin
    destroy
    coil
    spoil
    choice
    boy
    join
    loyal
    fail
    joint
    hoist
    joy
    poison
    royalty
    When the consonant r comes after the vowel o, it changes the sound of the vowel as in for. The or sound is marked like this: côrn.
    4. Modified vowel ôr words
    Lord
    fort
    core
    snore
    torch
    north
    door
    port
    more
    store
    born
    acorn
    floor
    short
    sore
    horse
    corn
    corner
    fork
    sport
    tore
    storm
    horn
    organ
    stork
    forty
    score
    porch
    thorn
    uniform
    A vowel digraph has two vowels that make one sound. The digraph oo makes the sound of oo as in zoo.
    5. Words with the vowel digraph oo as in zoo
    Sample sentence: Who's in the mood for fruit?
    broom
    moose
    soon
    pool
    zoo
    smooth
    room
    noodle
    spoon
    spool
    shoot
    food
    hoop
    poodle
    roost
    stool
    roof
    balloon
    loop
    too
    rooster
    school
    proof
    igloo
    goose
    moon
    tool
    boot
    booth
    raccoon
    loose
    moon
    fool
    root
    tooth
    snooze
    A vowel digraph has two vowels that make one sound. The digraph oo makes the sound of oo as in look.
    6. Words with the vowel digraph oo as in book; o, u, and ou can say oo
    Sample sentence: Would you look up in the cookbook how much sugar we'll need for the cookies?
    book
    brook
    good
    wool
    wolf
    bull
    cook
    crook
    hood
    woolen
    wolves
    full
    hook
    shook
    stood
    foot
    put
    pull
    look
    cookie
    wood
    soot
    bush
    could
    nook
    booklet
    woody
    unhook
    push
    would
    took
    brooklet
    wooden
    lookout
    cushion
    should
    When the consonant r comes after the vowel e, it changes the sound of the vowel as in herd. The er sound is a combination of the schwa (ə) and r sounds.
    7. Modified vowel er words
    Sample sentence: She was served turkey at her first American Thanksgiving.
    herd
    sister
    circle
    birthday
    turkey
    early
    germ
    cracker
    circus
    thirteen
    purple
    earn
    term
    hammer
    bird
    thirty
    hurry
    learn
    fern
    pitcher
    third
    fur
    nurse
    earth
    eternal
    rocker
    girl
    curb
    purse
    word
    verse
    water
    firm
    church
    burst
    work
    serve
    zipper
    squirrel
    injure
    hurt
    world
    person
    fir
    dirt
    sure
    curtain
    worm
    father
    sir
    shirt
    curl
    turtle
    worry
    mother
    stir
    skirt
    burn
    heard
    worship
    brother
    giraffe
    first
    turn
    pearl
    worth
    The vowel o makes different sounds and one of them is the sound of ô as in dôg.
    8. Words with the sound of ô as in dog
    off
    moth
    claw
    draw
    crawl
    taught
    dog
    belong
    small
    straw
    shawl
    fault
    fog
    strong
    stall
    thaw
    sprawl
    ought
    hog
    wrong
    talk
    dawn
    faucet
    brought
    log
    ball
    walk
    fawn
    awning
    fought
    frog
    call
    stalk
    lawn
    awful
    brought
    smog
    fall
    salt
    yawn
    auto
    thought
    boss
    hall
    malt
    brawn
    because
    autumn
    toss
    mall
    law
    drawn
    caught
    haughty
    cross
    tall
    paw
    hawk
    daughter
    laundry
    cloth
    wall
    saw
    brawl
    naughty
    cough (f)
    You have learned the sound of är as in arm. These letters also make the sound of are as in squâre.
    9. Modified âre words
    bare
    blare
    fair
    pear
    cherry
    aware
    care
    flare
    hair
    tear
    their
    barrel
    dare
    share
    pair
    wear
    where
    dairy
    hare
    carry
    stair
    berry
    there
    errand
    rare
    marry
    chair
    ferry
    carrot
    error
    ware
    air
    bear
    merry
    parrot
    square
    The letter c usually has the sound of s when it is followed by the vowels e, i, or y. This is called the soft sound of c. Likewise, the soft sound of the letter g makes the j sound when it is followed by e, i, or y.
    10. The soft sounds of the letters c and g
    ice
    juice
    glance
    necklace
    badge
    hedge
    dice
    base
    city
    circle
    large
    pledge
    lice
    face
    cymbals
    circus
    barge
    engine
    mice
    lace
    ounce
    age
    charge
    giraffe
    nice
    pace
    bounce
    cage
    gem
    hinge
    rice
    race
    pounce
    gage
    ridge
    danger
    vice
    brace
    fence
    page
    bridge
    giant
    slice
    place
    pencil
    rage
    gum
    orange
    spice
    space
    prince
    sage
    gypsy
    range
    price
    trace
    lettuce
    stage
    Egypt
    change
    twice
    chance
    celery
    wage
    wedge
    manger
    A vowel digraph has two vowels that makes one sound. The digraph ea makes the sound of e as in head.
    11. Words with the vowel digraph ea which has the short vowel e sound
    dead
    dread
    thread
    meant
    threat
    sweater
    head
    spread
    deaf
    weapons
    breath
    weather
    lead
    stead
    breakfast
    peasant
    death
    headache
    read
    steady
    health
    pleasant
    feather
    treasure
    ready
    instead
    wealth
    pleasure
    heather
    measure
    bread
    tread
    cleanser
    sweat
    leather
    meadow


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    Last edited by OoSoOSwtJenna; Jan 15, 2012 at 12:02 AM. Reason: to be continue :)
    "I don't get upset with myself if my accent isn't perfect. I know I am making progress as long as I practice all the time. Don't be too hard on yourself if you are still making mistakes. Developing an American accent is a process. It doesn't happen overnight." Sabrina Stoll, Germany

  2. #2
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    Hello sis Jenna,

    May I have further explanation about the difference between diphthongs and vowel digraphs? It's seen in this post that oi, oy, ow, ou are diphthongs. However, in another post they were mentioned as vowel digraphs. ( http://tienganh.net/threads/10543-le...erican-english ). That's why I'm confused about them.

    Looking forward to your explanation.

    Best regards,

    Ga Chip


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