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Thread: Food Safety

  1. #1
    Join Date
    January 2010

    Default Food Safety

    The Truth About Food Safety

    Many people do not think about food safety until they get food poisoning, also known as foodborne illness. Fortunately, our country's food supple is one of the safest in the world. Still, foodborne illnesses are fairly common. Each year in the U.S., foodborne illnesses afflict 76 million people, more than 300,000 of those people are hospitalized, and 5,000 people die.

    Who is at Risk?

    Healthy adults normally recover from foodborne illnesses in a couple of days to a couple of weeks. Vulnerable populations are at an increased risk for complications resulting form foodborne illness. Examples of vulnerable populations are:

    - Children (5 and under)
    - Elderly (65 and over)
    - Pregnant Women
    - Immune Compromised Individual (such as those on immune suppressing drugs and chemo-therapy patients).


    food poisoning: ngộ độc thực phẩm

    foodborne illness: bệnh do thực phẩm gây ra

    afflict = affect : ảnh hưởng tới, ( gây bệnh cho)

    vulnerable: dễ bị tổn thương.

    chemo-therapy patient: bệnh nhân đang được hóa trị.

    immnune compromised individual: những cá nhân có hệ miễn dịch dễ bị thương tổn (đang yếu)

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  2. #2
    Join Date
    January 2010


    What Causes a Foodborne Illness?

    Foodborne Illnesses are caused when food becomes contaminated with disease causing bacteria or viruses. When left unchecked, they reproduce quickly to levels that can cause illness in people. A person can become sick when they eat food containing disease causing bacteria, viruses or toxins.

    How Does Bacteria Get in Our Food in the First Place?

    Food may become contaminated in a number of ways:

    - Food becomes contaminated when bacteria is transferred to the food by unclean hands, dirty utensils, or when the food has come into contact with a surface that is dirty and unsanitary that may be harboring bacteria.

    - Food becomes contaminated when it comes into contact with a utensil or surface that has raw meat juices on it.

    - Raw meat contains naturally occurring bacteria and must be thoroughly cooked in order to kill all the disease causing bacteria.


    contaminated: (adj) bị nhiễm bẩn

    reproduce: (v) tái sinh, tái sinh sôi nẩy nở

    utensils : (n) dụng cụ làm bếp

    thoroughly: (adv) hoàn toàn, rất - thoroughly cooked : được nấu kỹ.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    January 2010


    Risk Factors for Foodborne Illness
    According to the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC), investigations of foodborne illness disease outbreaks often identify the following five risk factors that result in foodborne illness:

    * Improper Hot and Cold Holding of Foods (from 41F* - 135F* is the dangerous zone for food) (5*C-60*C)

    * Inadequate Cooking of Foods.

    * Dirty and / or Contaminated Equipment

    * Poor Employee Health and Personal Hygiene

    * Food From Unsafe Sources

    To prevent a foodborne illness from happening in your food facility, it is very important that you control and eliminate these risk factors. It is equally important to keep your facility clean, in good repair, and free of vermin such as rodents, cockroaches, or flies.


    Inadequate (adj): không đầy đủ, thiếu.

    Personal Hygiene: Vệ sinh cá nhân

    Poor (adj): kém

    Unsafe (adj): không an toàn, không đảm bảo tiêu chuẩn (vệ sinh)

    Vermin (n): động vật có hại

    Rodents (n): loài gặm nhắm (chuột..)

    Cockroaches (n): gián

    Flies (n): loài có cánh (ruồi, bọ...)

  4. #4
    Join Date
    January 2010


    Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF)

    Some foods require temperature control because they are capable of supporting the growth of harmful microorganisms. These foods are called potentially hazardous foods or PHFs. PHFs include food of animal origin (such as meat and dairy products), cooked fruits and vegetables, cooked starches (such as rice, potatoes, and pasta), soy products (such as tofu and soy milk), as well as raw seed sprouts, cut melons, and garlic-in-oil mixtures.

    PHF does not include any of the following:

    * Dry foods (with water activity of 0.85 or less)

    * Acidic foods (pH at or below 4.6)

    * Shell egg (intact) that is not hard boiled, but has been pasteurized.

    * Food in an unopened hermetically sealed container that has been commercially processed.

    If PHFs have to be removed from temperature control, they shall be returned to temperature control as soon as possible.


    microorganism (n): vi sinh vật

    harmful (adj): có hại

    potentially hazardous foods (PHFs) : những thực phẩm có nguy cơ tiềm ẩn

    food of animal origin: thực phẩm có nguồn gốc từ động vật.

    dairy products: các sản phẩm từ sữa

    cooked starches: các loại tinh bột đã được nấu chín

    pasta: các loại mì, nui (từ lúa mạch, gạo)

    soy products: các sản phẩm từ đậu nành

    cut melons: các loại dưa được cắt sẵn (rồi đóng gói, hay để trần)

    garlic-in-oil mixture: tỏi ngâm dầu.

    water activity: hoạt độ nước (trong hóa thực phẩm)

    acidic foods : những thực phẩm tạo nhiều chất a-xít

    intact (adj): còn nguyên vẹn

    pasteurized : tiệt trùng

    hermetically(adv): kín mít, kín thật kín

    Last edited by be_Su_; Jan 5, 2015 at 11:41 AM.

  5. #5
    Join Date
    January 2010


    Risk Factor # 1

    Improper Hot and Cold Holding of Foods

    Holding PHF(Potentially hazardous Food) at the proper temperature is important in order to limit the growth of bacteria. PHF stored between 41*F (5*C) and 135*F (60*C) may allow bacteria to grow and reproduce enough to cause an illness. This range is called the danger zone.

    Make sure to keep cold foods cold at a temperature of 41*F of below. Make sure to keep hot foods hot at a temperature of 135*F (60*C) or above.

    Rapid Cooling of Foods

    Rapid cooling of potentially hazardous foods is important in order to limit the amount of time that food is in the danger zone. This is to limit the amount of bacterial growth during cooling. Food must be rapidly cooled from 135*F(60*C) to 71*F (22*C) within two hours, and then from 70*F (21*C) to 41*F(5*C) within four more hours.

    Some possible rapid cooling methods include:

    * Using an ice bath while stirring.

    * In shallow pans inside a refrigerator.

    * Divided into small portions while inside a refrigerator.

    * Use of ice wands.

    * Blast chillers.

    * Adding ice as an ingredient.


    reproduce (tr.v): làm sinh sôi nảy nở, tái sinh, mọc lại

    rangen) khoảng từ...đến từ, tầm, phạm vi

    rapid (adj): nhanh, mau lẹ

    ice bath : để thực phẩm trong một thùng có đá bên dưới

    shallow pans: cái xoong/ chảo cạn (vì cạn thì sẽ mau lạnh hơn sâu)

    small portions: thành những phần nhỏ

    ice wands: một loại ống nhựa bên trong hòn sỏi bạc(silver media), sỏi đồng (copper media) để lọc các chất dơ trong tủ lạnh

    blast chillers: máy làm lạnh nhanh bằng hơi gió

  6. #6
    Join Date
    January 2010


    Risk Factor #2

    Improper Cooking Temperatures

    By cooking raw meats and animal products to the proper temperatures, we ensure that any disease causing bacteria are killed before the food is eaten. That is why it is important to make sure that all foods are thoroughly cooked.

    Required Minimum Cooking Temperatures

    165*F (73.9*C) -Poultry, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, stuffed poultry, and stuffed pasta.

    155*F (68.3*C) - Ground or comminuted meat, raw eggs and foods containing raw eggs.

    145*F (62.8*C) - Raw shell eggs cooked to order, fish, and single pieces of meat including beef, veal, lamb, or pork.

    135*F (57.2*C) - Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding.

    All cooking temperatures must be achieved ad held for 15 seconds.

    Any foods cooked in a microwave oven must be cooked to 165*F (73.9*C).

    Rapid Reheating of Foods

    Rapid reheating of foods is just as important as rapid cooling of foods. Rapidly reheating foods ensures that the food spends as little time in the danger zone as possible. This limits bacterial growth during reheating. PHF must be rapidly reheated to 165*F within 2 hours before it can be hot held at 135*F.

    Foods can be reheated rapidly in the following ways:

    . On a stove

    . In a microwave oven

    . In a conventional oven

    * Steam tables, Bain-Maries, and other kinds of warmers are intended for hot holding and may not be used for rapid reheating.


    raw meats : thịt tươi sống

    animal products: các sản phẩm từ động vật

    proper temperatures: nhiệt độ đúng tiêu chuẩn

    thoroughly cooked: được nấu chín thiệt là chín, kỹ lưỡng

    poultry: gia cầm (gà, vịt, ngan, ngỗng)

    stuffedv) nhồi, dồn vào

    pastan) các loại mì (ống, sợi, xoắn)

    groundv) xay nhỏ

    comminuted (tr.v): tán nhỏ, nghiền nhỏ,

    Raw shell eggs cooked to order: trứng tươi còn vỏ nấu theo yêu cầu.

    veal (n): thịt bê (bò con)

    lamb (n): cừu

    (foods)cooked for hot holding: thực phẩm nấu rồi để giữ nóng, không được để nguội.

    temperatures must be achieved and held in 15 seconds: trong vòng 15 giây, thì độ nóng của thực phẩm phải đạt tới nhiệt độ yêu cầu (sau khi nấu chín thật chín).

    conventional oven: lò nướng kiểu truyền thống

    steam table: bàn có những ô nhỏ chứa nước, có thể được làm nóng bằng điện, để giữ nóng cho thực phẩm vừa được nấu chín.

    Last edited by be_Su_; Jan 10, 2015 at 11:52 AM.

  7. #7
    Join Date
    January 2010


    Calibrating a Food Thermometer

    When using a food thermometer, make sure the temperature it reads is accurate. An easy way to do this is to use ice and water. An accurate thermometer is critical to food safety.

    . Pack a cup almost to the top with crushed ice, the fill the cup with water.

    . Put the thermometer at least 2 inches into the ice slurry. After 60 seconds, read the dial. It shoud read 32*F (0*C).

    . If it does not read 32*F, do the following:

    1. While the thermometer is still in the ice water, use pliers or a wrench to turn the nut on the back of the thermometer until the needle reads 32*F (0*C).

    2. Wait 30 seconds and check the temperature again. Keep repeating these steps until the thermometer reads 32*F (0*C).

    *Note: Calibrate the food thermometer every day and whenever it is bumped or dropped. This will ensure that it is displaying the correct temperature.


    Calibratetr.v) định mức, cỡ (cho cái gì)

    thermometer: (n) nhiệt kế

    accurateadj) chính xác, đúng

    critical (to) : rất quan trọng (đối với)

    slurry: (n): hỗn hợp nước đá và nước (nó đặc đặc)/ chất pha trộn

    the dial: (n) mặt đồng hồ có kim chỉ / read the dial : đọc xem kim trên mặt đồng hồ chỉ tới mức nào

    pliers (n): cái kìm

    wrench (n): cờ lê (mỏ lết)

    needle (n): cây kim trên mặt đồng hồ

    Last edited by be_Su_; Jan 10, 2015 at 11:53 AM.

  8. #8
    Join Date
    January 2010


    Risk Factor #3

    Dirty or Contaminated Equipment

    When utensils, equipment, or food contact surfaces become dirty or contaminated, it is necessary to clean and sanitize them. Frequent cleaning of utensils, equipment, and food contact surfaces is necessary in order to remove dirt and debris. A sanitizer must also be used after cleaning in order to eliminate any remaining bacteria.

    Proper cleaning of utensils is a 3 steps process:

    1. Wash

    2. Rinse

    3. Sanitize

    Sanitizing of Utensils

    When using the following sanitizers, make sure that the chemical concentration is correct:

    A. Chlorine (bleach) - 100-200 ppm*

    B. Quaternary Ammonia - 200-400 ppm*

    C. Heat (dish machine)- 180*F(82.2 *C) from the manifold and 160*F(71.1*C) at the plate level.

    Proper wash, rinse and sanitize set-up for a 3-compartment sink.

    Water temperature in the wash sink must at least 110*F (43.3*C).

    Leave utensils in the sanitize sink for at least:

    30 seconds for Chlorine (Cl) or 60 seconds for Quaternary Ammonia (QT)

    Wiping Cloth Sanitation

    Dirty wiping cloths can harbor disease causing bacteria. Reusing these wiping cloths can spread the bacteria all over your kitchen. You may either:

    . Use a clean cloth once the launder it.

    . Hold wiping cloths in a sanitizer bucket.

    Maintain the sanitizer solution at the same levels used for sanitizing utensils. Change the solution when it becomes dirty or the concentration drops below the minimum levels.


    utensils (n): dụng cụ nhà bếp

    equipment (n): thiết bị, dụng cụ

    food contact surfaces: bề mặt nơi dùng để chế biến thực phẩm

    contaminated: nhiễm trùng, bẩn (do tiếp xúc với vật dơ)

    sanitize (v) : khử trùng

    sanitizer (n): chất khử trùng

    debris: những mảnh vụn của thực phẩm (rơi vãi) trong lúc chế biến

    eliminate: (v) loại bỏ

    bacteria (n) vi trùng, vi khuẩn

    rinse: (v) rửa lại bằng nước sạch (sau khi rửa bằng xà bông)

    chemical concentration: dung dịch hóa chất đậm đặc

    Chlorine (bleach): Clo (hóa) là một chất oxy hóa mạnh, dùng tẩy trắng, khử trùng cực mạnh (nhưng rất độc, nên phải cẩn thận). Đối với Clo, khi kiểm tra bằng giấy quỳ (giấy kiểm tra độ pH) thì phải đạt tới mức 100 tới 200 (đối với ở Mỹ)

    Quaternary Ammonia : nước Quat (QT) là một dung dịch khử trùng. Đối với QT, khi kiểm tra bằng giấy quỳ thì phải đạt tới mức 200 tới 400.

    ppm : parts per million (phần triệu)

    heat (dish machine) : máy làm nóng dĩa

    manifold: đường ống phân phối (bên trong máy làm nóng dĩa)

    3-compartment sink: khu vực rửa sạch chén bát phải chia ra làm 3 bồn, (bồn thứ 1 rửa với xà bông và nước ẩm cho sạch thức ăn bám trên dĩa, sau đó bồn thứ 2 rửa lại với nước sạch, bồn thứ 3 rửa lại với nước khử trùng). Nếu chất khử trùng là Clo thì nhúng bát dĩa vào để khoảng 30 giây rồi lấy ra. Nếu chất khử trùng là QT thì phải nhúng bát dĩa vào và để 60 giây mới được lấy ra.

    wiping cloth : khăn, giẻ lau

    harbor (v) : chứa chấp, ẩn chứa, ẩn náu

    spread (v) : làm lây lan

    launder (v) : giặt

    bucket: (n) cái xô

    solution: (n) dung dịch

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