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Thread: Need help about Grammar

  1. #21
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    Question 2: (Improving sentence)
    The difference between Liebniz and Schopenhauter is that the former is optimistic; the later, pessimistic.
    (A) as it is.
    (B) the former is optimistic, the later, pessimistic.
    (C) while the former is optimistic; the later, pessimistic.
    (D) the former is optimistic; the later being pessimistic.
    (E) the former one is optimistic; the later one is a pessimistic.
    My answer: (B)
    Correct answer: (A)
    Reasoning:
    (C) "While" is redundant, so I rejected (C).
    (D): "Being" is not a working verb in this sentence. Thus, the sentence has no verb.
    (E): "One" is redundant because the "former" and the "later" refer to "Liebniz" and "Schopenhauter" respectively.
    (A): I thought that the semicolon was used as a means to separate 2 sentences. In that case, "the later, pessimistic" had no verb.
    Hence, the answer is (B)


    Could you help me explain why (A) is right?

    Last edited by o0o ga chip 93 o0o; Jan 16, 2013 at 01:31 PM.

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    Under the sky ngoc_diem_131's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by o0o ga chip 93 o0o View Post
    Question 2: (Improving sentence)
    The difference between Liebniz and Schopenhauter is that the former is optimistic; the later, pessimistic.
    (A) as it is.
    (B) the former is optimistic, the later, pessimistic.
    (C) while the former is optimistic; the later, pessimistic.
    (D) the former is optimistic; the later being pessimistic.
    (E) the former one is optimistic; the later one is a pessimistic.
    My answer: (B)
    Correct answer: (A)
    Reasoning:
    (C) "While" is redundant, so I rejected (C).
    (D): "Being" is not a working verb in this sentence. Thus, the sentence has no verb.
    (E): "One" is redundant because the "former" and the "later" refer to "Liebniz" and "Schopenhauter" respectively.
    (A): I thought that the semicolon was used as a means to separate 2 sentences. In that case, "the later, pessimistic" had no verb.
    Hence, the answer is (B)


    Could you help me explain why (B) is right?
    Interesting. I first had the same question when I did a question similar to yours.

    Comma can function to represent for an omitted word. In the sentence "The difference between Liebniz and Schopenhauter is that the former is optimistic; the later, pessimistic. ", the comma between the later and pessimistic replaces for "IS". It is quite complex and vague actually. Because comma functions as a replaced word, "the later, pessimistic" can be considered a clause. So, it makes sense to choose A as the correct answer.

    Another example:

    Correct: Diem loves to eat apples; Ga, orange.
    Incorrect: Diem loves to eat apples; Ga orange. (Without comma?!?!).
    In this case, comma replaces for "loves to eat". Ga, orange functions as a clause.

    Hope that helps.

    ND


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    Quote Originally Posted by ngoc_diem_131 View Post
    Interesting. I first had the same question when I did a question similar to yours.

    Comma can function to represent for an omitted word. In the sentence "The difference between Liebniz and Schopenhauter is that the former is optimistic; the later, pessimistic. ", the comma between the later and pessimistic replaces for "IS". It is quite complex and vague actually. Because comma functions as a replaced word, "the later, pessimistic" can be considered a clause. So, it makes sense to choose A as the correct answer.

    Another example:

    Correct: Diem loves to eat apples; Ga, orange.
    Incorrect: Diem loves to eat apples; Ga orange. (Without comma?!?!).
    In this case, comma replaces for "loves to eat". Ga, orange functions as a clause.

    Hope that helps.

    ND
    Dear sis Diem,

    Thank you for your answer. After reading your explanation, I've stumbled into another question about the function of semicolon in choice (A). That is, "Does the semicolon in this sentence act as a "big comma" to separate items in a complex list or as a "period" to separate 2 independent clauses?". Here, is how I found my answer.

    If "the later, pessimistic" is considered as a clause and the comma is considered as the word IS, the clause can be rewritten as "the latter is pessimistic". It becomes an independent clause. The semicolon then can act as a "period" to separate 2 independent clauses. In this case, the part "The difference between L and S is that the former is optimistic" becomes ambiguous as it does not fully explain the difference between L and S. L is optimistic so why does it differ from S?

    However, the semicolon can act as a "big comma" to separate complex elements in a list. In choice (A), the second item of the list, "the later, pessimistic", has a comma. Therefore, semicolon can be used as a "big comma" to separate "the former is pessimistic" from "the later, pessimistic". Consequently, the whole sentence is less ambiguous.

    Am I right?


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    Under the sky ngoc_diem_131's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by o0o ga chip 93 o0o View Post
    Dear sis Diem,

    Thank you for your answer. After reading your explanation, I've stumbled into another question about the function of semicolon in choice (A). That is, "Does the semicolon in this sentence act as a "big comma" to separate items in a complex list or as a "period" to separate 2 independent clauses?". Here, is how I found my answer.

    If "the later, pessimistic" is considered as a clause and the comma is considered as the word IS, the clause can be rewritten as "the latter is pessimistic". It becomes an independent clause. The semicolon then can act as a "period" to separate 2 independent clauses. In this case, the part "The difference between L and S is that the former is optimistic" becomes ambiguous as it does not fully explain the difference between L and S. L is optimistic so why does it differ from S?

    However, the semicolon can act as a "big comma" to separate complex elements in a list. In choice (A), the second item of the list, "the later, pessimistic", has a comma. Therefore, semicolon can be used as a "big comma" to separate "the former is pessimistic" from "the later, pessimistic". Consequently, the whole sentence is less ambiguous.

    Am I right?
    Yes, your reasoning makes sense. You are making great progress, Ga.


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    Question 6: (Improving sentence)
    That it is deemed necessary to shield television viewers from ads concerning pressing public issues while they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles/is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy.

    (A) they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (B) they had been bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles sadly is a commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (C) it is bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (D) they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles are sad commentaries on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (E) they are bombarding with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of
    our democracy

    My answer: Undecided
    Correct answer: (A)
    Explanation:
    6. A. Sentence is correct. Choice B introduces an error in tense. Choice D introduces an error in subject-verb agreement (the verb should not be plural). Choices C and E are wholly confusing.

    This sentence confused me. Here is how I understood it.
    - “they” means public issues or television viewer?
    - “they” is usually used to refer to people not objects, therefore, “they” means television viewers.
    - The participle phrase “concerning pressing public issues” modifies “ads”.
    -
    "That it is deemed necessary to shield viewers from ads.... while they are being bombarded with... is a sad commentary on the state of our culture..."
    - What is the function "is" in this sentence???


    Last edited by o0o ga chip 93 o0o; Jan 19, 2013 at 02:51 PM.

  6. #26
    Under the sky ngoc_diem_131's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by o0o ga chip 93 o0o View Post
    Question 6: (Improving sentence)
    That it is deemed necessary to shield television viewers from ads concerning pressing public issues while they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles/is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy.

    (A) they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (B) they had been bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles sadly is a commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (C) it is bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (D) they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles are sad commentaries on the state of our culture and of our democracy
    (E) they are bombarding with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of
    our democracy

    My answer: Undecided
    Correct answer: (A)
    Explanation:
    6. A. Sentence is correct. Choice B introduces an error in tense. Choice D introduces an error in subject-verb agreement (the verb should not be plural). Choices C and E are wholly confusing.

    This sentence confused me. Here is how I understood it.
    - “they” means public issues or television viewer?
    - “they” is usually used to refer to people not objects, therefore, “they” means television viewers.
    - The participle phrase “concerning pressing public issues” modifies “ads”.
    -
    "That it is deemed necessary to shield viewers from ads.... while they are being bombarded with... is a sad commentary on the state of our culture..."
    - What is the function "is" in this sentence???
    Hi Gà,

    Let us separate the sentence down.

    Look!

    1. That (it is deemed necessary to shield television viewers from ads concerning pressing public issues while they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles) is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy.


    The main clause is That is a sad commentary on the state of our culture and of our democracy.

    Tạm dịch: Điều mà "..." là một lời bình luận đáng buồn về văn hóa và nền dân chủ của chúng ta.

    So, IS functions as the main verb.

    "it is deemed necessary to shield television viewers from ads concerning pressing public issues while they are being bombarded with commercial pitches for beer and sports utility vehicles" is a clause to clarify for "that".
    2. It is true that "Concerning pressing public issues" modifies "ads"& "they" is "television viewers".



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    Dear sis Diem,

    Thank you for your clarification. Wow... that was tough. I got it.

    Thank you.

    Ga Chip


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    Question 6:
    The nation's fledgling economy struggled because the investment from other countries into its major industries was lacking from most of them.
    (A) as it is
    (B) because few other countries were willing to invest in its major industries
    (C) due to the fact that few other countries would have invested in its major industries
    (D) because of the lack of investment from few other countries in its industries
    (E) for the lack of investment in its major industries from other countries
    My answer: (E)
    Correct answer: (B)
    My reasoning:
    - In (A), it is unclear whether "them" refer to "industries" or "countries". Reject (A).
    - (B) sounds good.
    - In (C), the phrase "due to the fact that" is redundant.
    - (D) sounds good and correct. => Choose (D)

    Why (B) is the correct answer? What is the problem with (D)?



  9. #29
    Under the sky ngoc_diem_131's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by o0o ga chip 93 o0o View Post
    Question 6:
    The nation's fledgling economy struggled because the investment from other countries into its major industries was lacking from most of them.
    (A) as it is
    (B) because few other countries were willing to invest in its major industries
    (C) due to the fact that few other countries would have invested in its major industries
    (D) because of the lack of investment from few other countries in its industries
    (E) for the lack of investment in its major industries from other countries
    My answer: (E)
    Correct answer: (B)
    My reasoning:
    - In (A), it is unclear whether "them" refer to "industries" or "countries". Reject (A).
    - (B) sounds good.
    - In (C), the phrase "due to the fact that" is redundant.
    - (D) sounds good and correct. => Choose (D)

    Why (B) is the correct answer? What is the problem with (D)?
    Dear Ga,

    The mistake you can learn from this question is the usage of "because of" and "due to".

    "because of" means for the reason that (bởi vì)
    "due to" means cause by
    D is only correct when changing "because of" into "due to" because "due to" means cause.

    Mình có thể hiểu nôm na là:

    The lack of investment from few other countries in the nation's industries causes its fledgling economy to struggle.

    E is wrong because if we use "for" with the meaning of "because", we need a clause after "for", not a noun phrase.

    Hope that helps,

    ND


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    Dear sis Diem,

    Thank you for your answer. My apology for the inconsistency in my previous post. My initial answer was (E) and my question was meant to ask "What is the problem with (E)?" The part "(D) sounds good and correct" should be "(E) sounds good and correct." Fortunately, you explained the problems with both (E) and (D).

    Initially, I eliminated (D) because it sounds awkard to have 2 prepositions in 1 noun phrase, "becaue OF the lack OF investment from other countries in its industries". Additionally, the expression is unnecessarily wordy.

    Best regards,

    Ga Chip


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